使用SVG基本操作API

前面的话

  本文将详细介绍SVG基本操作API,并使用这些API制作实例效果  

效果演示

  下面是利用SVG基本操作API制作的一个前端开发学习目录。点击中间的元素,可随机旋转。点击目录内容,可进入相关页面。宽边框的元素表示为二级目录  

基础API

  在javascript中,可以使用一些基本的API来对SVG进行操作 【NS地址】   因为SVG定义在其自身的命令空间下,而不是HTML的命名空间下,可以作为单独的XML文件存在。所以需要使用自身的NS地址   有两个常用的NS地址
var SVG_NS = "http://www.w3.org/2000/svg"; var XLINK_NS = "http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink";
【创建图形】
document.createElementNS(SVG_NS,tagName);
【添加图形】
element.appendChild(childElement)
【设置/获取属性】
element.setAttribute(name,value); element.getAttribute(name);
【设置xlink】   <a>、<textPath>等标签需要设置xlink属性
element.setAttributeNS(XLINK_NS,'xlink:href',value);
 

封装函数

  将创建标签及添加属性的操作封闭成一个函数,方便复用
function createTag(tag,objAttr){ var oTag = document.createElementNS('http://www.w3.org/2000/svg',tag); for(var attr in objAttr){ if(attr == 'xlink:href'){ oTag.setAttributeNS("http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink",attr,objAttr[attr]); }else{ oTag.setAttribute(attr,objAttr[attr]); } } return oTag; }
  下面通过该函数,创建一个圆形
<script> function createTag(tag,objAttr){ var oTag = document.createElementNS('http://www.w3.org/2000/svg',tag); for(var attr in objAttr){ if(attr == 'xlink:href'){ oTag.setAttributeNS("http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink",attr,objAttr[attr]); }else{ oTag.setAttribute(attr,objAttr[attr]); } } return oTag; } var oSvg = createTag('svg',{'version':'1.1','xmls':'http://www.w3.org/2000/svg',height:'70'}); var oCircle = createTag('circle',{'cx':'25','cy':'25','r':20,'fill':'pink'}); oSvg.appendChild(oCircle); document.body.appendChild(oSvg); </script>
 

实例

  下面通过SVG基本操作API,创建一个可交互的SVG实例
<style> #box{ height: 300px; width: 300px; background: hsl(20,40%,90%); background-image:linear-gradient(90deg,#fb3 11px,transparent 0), linear-gradient(90deg,#ab4 23px,transparent 0), linear-gradient(90deg,#655 41px,transparent 0); background-size: 41px 100%,61px 100%,83px 100%; } </style> <div id="box"></div> <script> var oSvg = createTag('svg',{'version':'1.1','xmls':'http://www.w3.org/2000/svg',height:'100%',width:'100%'}); var oBox = document.getElementById('box'); var W = parseInt(getComputedStyle(oBox).width); var H = parseInt(getComputedStyle(oBox).height); var appearance = { 'dis':H/3, 'r0':H/8,'r':H/10, 'x0':W/2,'y0':H/2, 'fontSize':H/20, 'bg0':'hsla(0,0%,100%,.6)','bg':'hsla(0,0%,100%,.3)', 'color0':'hsl(210,13%,30%)','color':'hsl(210,13%,30%)', 'borderColor0':'rgba(0,0,0,0.3)','bordercolor':'rgba(0,0,0,0.3)', 'strokWidth0':3,'strokWidth':2, 'lineColor':'rgba(0,0,0,0.3)','lineWidth':1,'lineDashed':'5,5' } var data = { text:'前端开发', children:[ {text:'HTML',url:'http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaohuochai/p/5203223.html'}, {text:'CSS',url:'http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaohuochai/p/5249139.html'}, {text:'JS',url:'http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaohuochai/p/5613593.html'}, {text:'ES6',url:'http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaohuochai/p/7233392.html'}, {text:'HTTP',url:'http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaohuochai/p/6392010.html'}, {text:'NodeJS',url:'http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaohuochai/p/6940560.html'}, {text:'前端工具',url:'http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaohuochai/p/6666415.html'}, ], } addChildenTags(); addCenterTag(); oBox.appendChild(oSvg); function createTag(tag,objAttr){ var oTag = document.createElementNS('http://www.w3.org/2000/svg',tag); for(var attr in objAttr){ if(attr == 'xlink:href'){ oTag.setAttributeNS("http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink",attr,objAttr[attr]); }else{ oTag.setAttribute(attr,objAttr[attr]); } } return oTag; } function addCenterTag(){ var oG = createTag('g',{'style':'cursor:default'}); var oCircle = createTag('circle',{'cx':appearance.x0,'cy':appearance.y0,'r':appearance.r0,'fill':appearance.bg0,'stroke':appearance.borderColor0,'stroke-width':appearance.strokWidth0}); var oText = createTag('text',{'x':appearance.x0,'y':appearance.y0,'font-size':appearance.fontSize,'text-anchor':'middle','dominant-baseline':'middle','stroke-width':appearance.strokWidth0}); oText.innerHTML = data.text; oG.appendChild(oCircle); oG.appendChild(oText); oSvg.appendChild(oG); } function addChildenTags(){ var children = data.children; var length = children.length; var deg = (360/length)*(2*Math.PI)/360; for(var i = 0; i < children.length;i++){ var cos = Math.cos(deg*i - 90); var sin = Math.sin(deg*i - 90); var x = appearance.x0 + appearance.dis*cos; var y = appearance.y0 + appearance.dis*sin; var oA = createTag('a',{'xlink:href':children[i].url,'target':'_black'}); var oG = createTag('g',{'style':'cursor:pointer'}); oG.index = i; var oLine = createTag('line',{'x1':x-appearance.r*cos,y1:y-appearance.r*sin,x2:appearance.x0+appearance.r0*cos,y2:appearance.y0+appearance.r0*sin,'stroke':appearance.lineColor,'stroke-width':appearance.lineWidth,'stroke-dasharray':appearance.lineDashed,'style':'transition:.5s'}); var oLineHelper = createTag('line',{'x1':x-appearance.r*cos,y1:y-appearance.r*sin,x2:appearance.x0+appearance.r0*cos,y2:appearance.y0+appearance.r0*sin,'stroke':'transparent','stroke-width':10}); var oCircle = createTag('circle',{'cx':x,'cy':y,'r':appearance.r,'fill':appearance.bg,'stroke':appearance.bordercolor,'stroke-width':appearance.strokWidth,'class':'frostedglass'}); var oText = createTag('text',{'x':x,'y':y,'font-size':appearance.fontSize,'text-anchor':'middle','dominant-baseline':'middle','stroke-width':appearance.strokWidth,fill:appearance.color}); oText.innerHTML = children[i].text; oG.appendChild(oLine); oG.appendChild(oLineHelper); oG.appendChild(oCircle); oG.appendChild(oText); oA.appendChild(oG); oSvg.appendChild(oA); oG.onmouseenter = function(){ elasticMove(this,appearance.r*1.2); var line = this.children[0]; line.removeAttribute('stroke-dasharray'); line.setAttribute('stroke-width',appearance.lineWidth*3); line.setAttribute('x1',appearance.x0+(appearance.dis - appearance.r0)*Math.cos(deg*this.index - 90)); line.setAttribute('y1',appearance.y0+(appearance.dis - appearance.r0)*Math.sin(deg*this.index - 90)); } oG.onmouseleave = function(){ elasticMove(this,appearance.r); var line = this.children[0]; line.setAttribute('stroke-width',appearance.lineWidth); line.setAttribute('stroke-dasharray',appearance.lineDashed); line.setAttribute('x1',appearance.x0+(appearance.dis - appearance.r)*Math.cos(deg*this.index - 90)); line.setAttribute('y1',appearance.y0+(appearance.dis - appearance.r)*Math.sin(deg*this.index - 90)); } } } function elasticMove(obj,str){ var circle = obj.getElementsByTagName('circle')[0]; var r0 = circle.getAttribute('r'); var r = Number(str); //声明步长值 var step = 0; //声明弹性距离 var len = r - r0; //声明弹性系数 var k = 0.7; //声明损耗系数 var z= 0.7; //声明当前值 var cur = r0; clearInterval(circle.timer); circle.timer = setInterval(function(){ //获取当前值cur cur = circle.getAttribute('r'); //更新弹性距离 len = r - cur; //弹力影响 step += len*k; //阻力影响 step = step*z; //赋值 circle.setAttribute('r',Number(cur) + step); //当元素的步长值接近于0,并且弹性距离接近于0时,停止定时器 if(Math.round(step) == 0 && Math.round(len) == 0){ circle.setAttribute('r',r); clearInterval(circle.timer); } },30); } </script>
  下面是效果演示 【改进版】   下面的改进版增加了二级目录,并增加了一些动态效果
<style> #box{ height: 300px; width: 300px; background: hsl(20,40%,90%); background-image:linear-gradient(90deg,#fb3 11px,transparent 0), linear-gradient(90deg,#ab4 23px,transparent 0), linear-gradient(90deg,#655 41px,transparent 0); background-size: 41px 100%,61px 100%,83px 100%; } </style> <div id="box"></div> <script> var oSvg = createTag('svg',{'version':'1.1','xmls':'http://www.w3.org/2000/svg',height:'100%',width:'100%'}); var oBox = document.getElementById('box'); var W = parseInt(getComputedStyle(oBox).width); var H = parseInt(getComputedStyle(oBox).height); var appearance = { 'dis':H/3, 'r0':H/8,'r':H/10, 'x0':W/2,'y0':H/2, 'fontSize':H/24, 'bg0':'rgba(255,255,255,.6)','bg':'rgba(255,255,255,.6)', 'borderColor0':'rgba(0,0,0,.3)','bordercolor':'rgba(0,0,0,.3)', 'strokeWidth0':4,'strokeWidth1':2,'strokeWidth2':4, 'lineColor':'rgba(0,0,0,0.3)','lineWidth':1,'lineDashed':'5,5', 'backX':W/20,'backY':H/20,'backFill':'rgba(0,0,0,.3)','backScale':'0.4', } var data = { text:'前端开发', children:[ {text:'PS',url:'http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaohuochai/p/5657404.html'}, {text:'HTML',url:'http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaohuochai/p/5203223.html'}, {text:'CSS',url:'http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaohuochai/p/5249139.html'}, {text:'JS',url:'http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaohuochai/p/5613593.html'}, {text:'ES6',url:'http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaohuochai/p/7233392.html'}, {text:'HTTP',url:'http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaohuochai/p/6392010.html'}, {text:'前端工具',url:'http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaohuochai/p/6666415.html'}, {text:'前端框架',url:'#',children:[ {text:'Bootstrap',url:'http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaohuochai/p/7097376.html'}, {text:'jQuery',url:'http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaohuochai/p/6489658.html'}, {text:'Vue',url:'http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaohuochai/p/7356084.html'}, ]}, {text:'后端相关',url:'#',children:[ {text:'NodeJS',url:'http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaohuochai/p/6940560.html'}, {text:'MongoDB',url:'http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaohuochai/p/7372243.html'}, {text:'PHP',url:'http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaohuochai/p/6038637.html'}, {text:'MySQL',url:'http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaohuochai/p/6081482.html'}, ]}, ], } function init(){ addChildenTags(data.children); addCenterTag(data); oBox.appendChild(oSvg); } init();function createTag(tag,objAttr){ var oTag = document.createElementNS('http://www.w3.org/2000/svg',tag); for(var attr in objAttr){ if(attr == 'xlink:href'){ oTag.setAttributeNS("http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink",attr,objAttr[attr]); }else{ oTag.setAttribute(attr,objAttr[attr]); } } return oTag; } function addCenterTag(obj){ var oG = createTag('g',{'style':'cursor:pointer'}); var oCircle = createTag('circle',{'cx':appearance.x0,'cy':appearance.y0,'r':appearance.r0,'fill':appearance.bg0,'stroke':appearance.borderColor0,'stroke-width':appearance.strokeWidth0}); var oText = createTag('text',{'x':appearance.x0,'y':appearance.y0,'font-size':appearance.fontSize,'text-anchor':'middle','dominant-baseline':'middle','stroke-width':appearance.strokeWidth0}); oText.innerHTML = obj.text; oG.appendChild(oCircle); oG.appendChild(oText); oSvg.appendChild(oG); oG.onclick = function(e){ e = e || event; oSvg.innerHTML = ''; if(obj.url == '#'){ addChildenTags(obj.children); addBackTag(); }else{ addChildenTags(data.children); } addCenterTag(obj); } } function addBackTag(){ var oG = createTag('g',{'style':'cursor:pointer'}); var oClipPath = createTag('clipPath',{'id':'clipPath1'}); var oPolygon = createTag('polygon',{'points':'40 0, 40 20, 100 20, 100 80, 40 80, 40 100, 0 50'}); var oRect = createTag('rect',{'x':0,'y':0,'width':100,'height':100,'fill':appearance.backFill,'clip-path':'url(#clipPath1)','transform':'scale(' + appearance.backScale + ') translate(' + appearance.backX + ','+appearance.backY + ')',}); oClipPath.appendChild(oPolygon); oG.appendChild(oClipPath); oG.appendChild(oRect); oSvg.appendChild(oG); oG.onclick = function(){ oSvg.innerHTML = ''; addChildenTags(data.children); addCenterTag(data); } } function randomArr(arr){ return arr.sort(function(){return Math.random() - 0.5}); } function addChildenTags(children){ var length = children.length; var deg = (360/length)*(2*Math.PI)/360; var posArr = []; var randomRotate = Math.floor(360*Math.random()); for(var i = 0; i < children.length;i++){ var cos = Math.cos(deg*i - randomRotate); var sin = Math.sin(deg*i - randomRotate); var x = appearance.x0 + appearance.dis*cos; var y = appearance.y0 + appearance.dis*sin; posArr[i] = {index:i,cos:cos,sin:sin,x:x,y:y}; } randomArr(posArr); for(var i = 0; i < children.length;i++){ var oA = createTag('a',{'xlink:href':children[i].url,'target':'_black'}); oA.obj = children[i]; oA.index = posArr[i].index; var oG = createTag('g',{'style':'cursor:pointer'}); var oLine = createTag('line',{'x1':posArr[i].x-appearance.r*posArr[i].cos,y1:posArr[i].y-appearance.r*posArr[i].sin,x2:appearance.x0+appearance.r0*posArr[i].cos,y2:appearance.y0+appearance.r0*posArr[i].sin,'stroke':appearance.lineColor,'stroke-width':appearance.lineWidth,'stroke-dasharray':appearance.lineDashed,'style':'transition:.5s'}); var oLineHelper = createTag('line',{'x1':posArr[i].x-appearance.r*posArr[i].cos,y1:posArr[i].y-appearance.r*posArr[i].sin,x2:appearance.x0+appearance.r0*posArr[i].cos,y2:appearance.y0+appearance.r0*posArr[i].sin,'stroke':'transparent','stroke-width':10}); if(oA.obj.url === '#'){ var oCircle = createTag('circle',{'cx':posArr[i].x,'cy':posArr[i].y,'r':appearance.r,'fill':appearance.bg,'stroke':appearance.bordercolor,'stroke-width':appearance.strokeWidth2,'class':'frostedglass'}); }else{ var oCircle = createTag('circle',{'cx':posArr[i].x,'cy':posArr[i].y,'r':appearance.r,'fill':appearance.bg,'stroke':appearance.bordercolor,'stroke-width':appearance.strokeWidth1,'class':'frostedglass'}); } var oText = createTag('text',{'x':posArr[i].x,'y':posArr[i].y,'font-size':appearance.fontSize,'text-anchor':'middle','dominant-baseline':'middle','stroke-width':appearance.strokeWidth1,fill:appearance.color}); oText.innerHTML = children[i].text; oG.appendChild(oLine); oG.appendChild(oLineHelper); oG.appendChild(oCircle); oG.appendChild(oText); oA.appendChild(oG); oSvg.appendChild(oA); oA.onmouseenter = function(){ elasticMove(this,appearance.r*1.2); var line = this.getElementsByTagName('line')[0]; line.removeAttribute('stroke-dasharray'); line.setAttribute('stroke-width',appearance.lineWidth*3); line.setAttribute('x1',appearance.x0+(appearance.dis - appearance.r0)*Math.cos(deg*this.index - randomRotate)); line.setAttribute('y1',appearance.y0+(appearance.dis - appearance.r0)*Math.sin(deg*this.index - randomRotate)); } oA.onmouseleave = function(){ elasticMove(this,appearance.r); var line = this.getElementsByTagName('line')[0]; line.setAttribute('stroke-width',appearance.lineWidth); line.setAttribute('stroke-dasharray',appearance.lineDashed); line.setAttribute('x1',appearance.x0+(appearance.dis - appearance.r)*Math.cos(deg*this.index - randomRotate)); line.setAttribute('y1',appearance.y0+(appearance.dis - appearance.r)*Math.sin(deg*this.index - randomRotate)); } oA.onclick = function(e){ e = e || event; if(this.obj.url === '#'){ e.preventDefault(); oSvg.innerHTML = ''; addCenterTag(this.obj); addChildenTags(this.obj.children); addBackTag(); } } } } function elasticMove(obj,str){ var circle = obj.getElementsByTagName('circle')[0]; var r0 = circle.getAttribute('r'); var r = Number(str); //声明步长值 var step = 0; //声明弹性距离 var len = r - r0; //声明弹性系数 var k = 0.7; //声明损耗系数 var z= 0.7; //声明当前值 var cur = r0; clearInterval(circle.timer); circle.timer = setInterval(function(){ //获取当前值cur cur = circle.getAttribute('r'); //更新弹性距离 len = r - cur; //弹力影响 step += len*k; //阻力影响 step = step*z; //赋值 circle.setAttribute('r',Number(cur) + step); //当元素的步长值接近于0,并且弹性距离接近于0时,停止定时器 if(Math.round(step) == 0 && Math.round(len) == 0){ circle.setAttribute('r',r); clearInterval(circle.timer); } },30); } </script>
 
posted @ 2017-09-14 00:47 小火柴的蓝色理想 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏